What is PEDV?

What is PEDV?

Source: National Pork Producers Council

Background:

  • PEDV is caused by a virus (Coronavirus) that is related to transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus.
  • PEDV only infects pigs (NOT humans or other livestock).
  • This is a new virus to the U.S. and was first confirmed in the country on May 17, 2013.

Clinical signs:

  • In previously naïve herds, PEDV is similar to TGE and includes: 
    • Severe diarrhea in pigs of all ages
    • Vomiting
    • High mortality - almost 100% in preweaned pigs

Diagnosis: Requires sample submissions to a diagnostic laboratory (contact your veterinarian).

Transmission: Oral contact with contaminated feces. The most common sources of infected feces are pigs, trucks, boots, clothing or other fomites.

Incubation period: (time from exposure to clinical signs) Only 12-24 hours.

Shedding: (amount of time animals can infect others) Up to 3 to 4 weeks.

Immunity/Protection:

  • No cross-protection with between TGE and PEDV even though both are Coronaviruses.
  • Maternal protection through colostrum from previously exposed sows can be quite effective.
  • No protection is long lasting (herds can re-break).
  • Vaccine studies are in progress.

Treatment: Supportive care through hydration. Provide clean, dry, draft free environment with access to high quality drinking water (electrolytes may be beneficial).

Prevention: Limit cross contamination with any suspected pigs's feces.

  • Clearly define and communicate a Line of Separation which marks the separation between your facility, transport vehicles or the outside/inside of your production site.
  • Contact your veterinarian and enhance biosecurity procedures.
  • • Biosecurity of transportation vehicles is important; they should be clean, disinfected and dry.
  • Several disinfectants have been demonstrated to effectively inactivate PEDV, such as formalin, sodium carbonate, lipid solvents, and strong iodophors in phosphoric acid.
  • Replacement breeding stock should originate from a negative herd.

Challenges to Industry: Infection with PED can create tremendous financial losses to a pork producer.

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